Easiest Way To Fix CEP Definition Circle Error

Here are some easy-to-use methods that can help resolve the cep detection cycle error problem.

Otherwise, the circular error probability is defined as the distance along a circle centered around your true value and containing 50% of the true GPS reading. This receiver with accurate CEP detail of 1 meter will be within 1 meter in real measurements with an accuracy of 50% of the time.

cep definition circular error

In ballistics-based military science, the circular error probable (CEP) (also the probability of error in a golf round or circle with equal probability[1]) is an intuitive calculation of the accuracy of a system weapon. It is defined as the radius from a circle, approximately centered on the sentence, whose boundary must include 50% of the landing points involved in the rounds.[2]


The original concept of CEP was based on the bivariate normal distribution (CBN) of the game, where CEP was primarily a parameter of CBN since μ and σ are characteristics of the normal distribution. In addition to this dispensing behavior, ammunition tends to pile up around the aiming point, with most people close enough, less and less far away, and very few at long range. In other words, if it’s n meters, 50% of the models land within n meters of your target, 43% between n and 2n and 7% between 2n and 3n meters, and the percentage of fights that land within n meters of your target.m three in some cases. , the CEP of the target is typically less than 0.2%.

What is circle Error Probable?

Circular Error Probability (CEP) is referred to as the cycle radius at which there is a 50% chance that the point of injury is inside, which is probably also widely used as a primary measure of the accuracy of guidance equipment systems.

This distribution scheme is often not respected. Precision-guided munitions also tend to have more “close-in collisions”, so they tend not to be blown forward. Ammunition can also have a larger standard deviation of range errors compared to the standard deviation of azimuth errors (deviation errors), resulting in an elliptical confidence region. Ammunition samples may not hit the target exactly, i.e. the mean of the vector will not represent (0,0). It’s called opinion.

How do you calculate CEP?

CEP has always been defined as the number of points at a certain distance from a specific specific location as a percentage of the total number of points. So the CEP for 50% will always be the distance within which half of their points are b Moves closer to a specific significant location.

To apply the concept of CEP to these conditions, CEP can be recognized as the square root of the mean squared error (MSE). The MSE is the variance number of the setup error plus the variance associated with the azimuth error plus the covariance associated with the distance error with the azimuth error plus the square of each of our deviations. Thus, the MSE results include the summation of all these error sources, which geometrically correspond to the radius of the zone a, in which 50% of the games will be found.

Conversion Between CEP, RMS And 2drms, R95

While 50% is a very common definition of CEP, the size of the circle can be expressed as a percentage. Approximate formulas are almost always available to convert the distributions associated with both axes to a counter radius circle for a specified percentage.[3][4]

Accurate measurement Probability (%)
RMS value K (rms value) 63 68 Cyclic Error Probability (CEP)
50 Extended distance double root mean square (2DRMS) from 95 to 98 Radius 95% (R95) 95

From/to CEP RMS R95 2DRMS CEP –
2.4 RMS
0.83 –
2.0 R95
0.59 –
1.2 2DRMS
0.83 –


  1. † http://web.archive.org/web/20110720122829/http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/vanguard/
  2. † ‘Circular Error (CEP), Air Force Probable Operational Test and hence Evaluation Center Technical Paper 6, Version 2, July 1987, page 1
  3. † “GPS Accuracy: Lies, Lies, Damnation and Statistics”, GPS World, Vol. 9, No. 2, January 1998 [1]
  4. † “GNSS Accuracy – Lies, Blatant Lies and GPS Statistics”, World, Vol. 18, No. 1, January 2007. Continuation of the article with the same title [2]

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WeaponsDefinitions of effectiveness

What is CEP artillery?

CEP (Circular Error Probable) is taken as the average distance your single projectile will travel from its normal point of aim. Displacements are distributed approximately as follows: 50% of all projectiles fall within the range of the CVO. 90% of each projectile hits a 2.5x CEP radius.

5. March 2014

CEP (Circular Error Probable) is your current average distance at whichthe projectile could be displaced from the aiming point. shiftssomething like this:

  • 50% of all projectiles will hit our radiusCEP.

  • 90% of all projectiles also land within 2.5 timesattached to the CEP department.

  • 99% of almost all projectiles hit 4 timesCEP removal.

  • EFFICIENT RANGE. TOTanks, this is the maximum range of understanding of a crew trained in conditionsMelee can now complete 50% of the first turn.Chance to hit a stationary target with an area of ​​2.5 m2. Same formulaalso used for aquarium anti-tank weapons. For automaticWeapon, it is the most long-range and with significant lossesprobably always added to a small disciplinary goal.

    EXPLOSION RADIUS. Distancefrom affects point aWeapons usually associated with explosion or burst effectsmay result in actual losses.

    PER (ERROR PROBABLE RANGE). BUTAn accuracy index associated with artillery pieces. The smaller the PER, the morespecifically a gun. 50% “overs” of this weapon(grenade fall outside of our target) and 50% of these “shorts”(grenades that miss the target) are used as part of PER (ex.this weapon and range) cover the point of impact. This personalityusually more in the paper area.

    cep definition circular error

    PED (Probable Error Deviation)Similar to PER, but with distraction. For towed artilleryit is much smaller than PER.

    PROBABILITY OF DAMAGE Ratingthe probability that a grenade (or smaller projectiles associated with the series) will hitspecific goal in a specific area. Especially those numbers.Extracts from field trials and/or possibly evaluation based on their results. team trainingand conditions on the battlefield can greatly change this buff.

    CHANCE TO KILL US Armydivides kills by K-kills (total kills indicate all fights).ability), F-Kills (Firepower kills; primary damageweapon system capabilities) M-kills and (mobile kills;loss of mobility). probability of killingrepresents the average chance of achieving one. Accurateindicate that the striking projectile will hit the target hardChance of killing.

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